Progress in Three-Terminal Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Solar Cells: Special Issue: EU PVSEC

Elisa Antolin, Marius Zehender, Simon Svatek, Myles Steiner, Mario Martinez, Ivan Garcia, Pablo Garcia-Linares, Emily Warren, Adele Tamboli, Antonio Marti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus Citations


Conventional solar cells, including multijunction solar cells, are based on pn junctions as building blocks. In contrast, the three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell (3T-HBTSC) explores the use of a bipolar transistor structure to build a solar cell. The limiting efficiency of this transistor structure equals that of a double-junction solar cell. However, since the 3T-HBTSC does not require tunnel junctions, its minimal structure has only three semiconductor layers, while the minimal structure of a double junction solar cell has six. This work reviews the operation principles of this solar cell and the steps carried out towards its practical implementation. Experimental results on a GaInP/GaAs HBTSC prototype with bottom interdigitated contacts are presented.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)843-850
Number of pages8
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-80433


  • base transport factor
  • bottom interdigitated contact
  • emitter injection efficiency
  • heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell
  • III–V material
  • multijunction solar cell
  • tandem solar cell


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