Quantification of Dead Lithium on Graphite Anode under Fast Charging Conditions

K. S. N. Vikrant, Eric McShane, Andrew Colclasure, Bryan McCloskey, Srikanth Allu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus Citations


A series of computational and experimental studies were conducted to understand the onset of lithium plating and subsequent quantification of dead lithium on graphite electrodes in the design of fast charging batteries. The experiments include titration and relaxation studies for detecting initiation of lithium metal plating for various SOC and C-rates, which are compared against the thermodynamically consistent phase field computational results. The collaborative study on "model graphite electrode"with 2.18 mAh cm?2 nominal capacity at 25 °C demonstrates: (1) the macroscopic voltage response during relaxation studies indicate the reintercalation of plated lithium into the graphite anode; (2) for SOC below 60% and low C Rates, there is no dead lithium; (3) for SOC between 60% to 80%, and C-Rates in the range of 4C 6C show dead lithium both in experiments and simulations.; (4) at 100% SOC and 4C 6C rates, large amounts of dead lithium are observed. The study presented here allows us to evaluate the effects of the physical properties of the electrochemical system on plating and stripping kinetics and the amount of dead lithium on graphite electrodes, which determines the cell capacity loss under fast charge.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number040520
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Electrochemical Society ("ECS"). Published on behalf of ECS by IOP Publishing Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-80665


  • dead lithium
  • fast charge
  • lithium ion batteries
  • nucleation and plating kinetics
  • phase-field modeling


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