Quantifying Point Defects in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin Films using Resonant X-Ray Diffraction

Steven Christensen, Steven Harvey, Glenn Teeter, Ingrid Repins, Kevin Stone, Michael Toney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus Citations


Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 is an interesting, earth abundant photovoltaic material, but has suffered from low open circuit voltage. To better understand the film structure, we have measured resonant x-ray diffraction across the Cu and Zn K-edges for the device quality thin films of Cu2ZnSnS4 (8.6% efficiency) and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (3.5% efficiency). This approach allows for the confirmation of the underlying kesterite structure and quantification of the concentration of point defects and vacancies on the Cu, Zn, and Sn sublattices. Rietveld refinement of powder diffraction data collected at multiple energies is used to determine that there exists a high level of CuZn and ZnCu defects on the 2c and 2d Wyckoff positions. We observe a significantly lower concentration of ZnSn defects and Cu or Zn vacancies.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 161901
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number16
StatePublished - 17 Oct 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
� 2016 Author(s).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-67431


  • powders
  • thin film structure
  • vacancies
  • x-ray diffraction
  • zinc


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