Rapid Open-Air Fabrication of Perovskite Solar Modules

Nicholas Rolston, William Scheideler, Austin Flick, Justin Chen, Hannah Elmaraghi, Andrew Sleugh, Oliver Zhao, Michael Woodhouse, Reinhardt Dauskardt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus Citations


This work demonstrates the first industrially relevant attempt to address both scalable and fast open-air photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing for the perovskite layer in a single-step conversion and at production speeds >10 m/min, to achieve the highest reported throughput of any solar technology. Our rapid spray processing techniques enabled among the highest perovskite PV efficiency produced in open air. Innovations in scribing techniques enabled the first single-source laser process to achieve perovskite module monolithic integration, and advanced technoeconomic analysis led to the most comprehensive cost model for perovskite module manufacturing. We make significant steps in reducing perovskite manufacturing costs necessary to potentially compete with incumbent Si-based PVs for utility-scale power generation, providing momentum toward wide-scale commercial deployment for perovskites to achieve the lowest levelized cost of energy for any form of PV production.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2675-2692
Number of pages18
Issue number12
StatePublished - 16 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A20-77230


  • cost modeling
  • laser scribing
  • LCOE
  • lifetime
  • manufacturing
  • perovskite solar cell
  • photovoltaics
  • scalable
  • spray coating
  • stability


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