Real-Time Dispatch With Secondary Frequency Regulation: A Pathway to Consider Intra-Interval Fluctuations

Mingxu Xiang, Zhifang Yang, Juan Yu, Ershun Du, Xin Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


Real-time dispatch balances the power demand with minimized operating costs. For the current dispatch model, the demand is assumed to be constant within a time interval, while the intra-interval power balance is left to frequency regulation. Based on practical experience and simulations, this behavior may lead to insufficient frequency regulation and uneconomic regulation costs considering the increase in intra-interval fluctuations caused by renewables. In this article, a real-time dispatch method with secondary frequency regulation behaviors is proposed. Without changing the interval of the real-time dispatch command, the system regulation mileage and intra-interval generation adjustment are explicitly formulated in a mixed-integer optimization model. To reduce the computational burden, an efficient two-stage calculation method is proposed. With practical utility data, this article finds that the proposed method can effectively improve the system frequency performance with the subminute net load forecasting curve obtained by an off-the-shelf forecasting approach. Time-domain simulations in IEEE and practical utility systems validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of the frequency performance and total operating costs.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5556-5567
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A40-81746


  • frequency regulation
  • intra-interval net load fluctuations
  • real-time dispatch
  • regulation costs


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