Real-Time Implementation of Smart Wireless Charging of On-Demand Shuttle Service for Demand Charge Mitigation

Ahmed Mohamed, Dylan Day, Andrew Meintz, Myungsoo Jun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus Citations


This paper presents a smart charge management strategy for an on-demand electric shuttle operating at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus and supported by an inductive charger at the vehicle's waiting spot. A new control algorithm has been proposed for mitigating the demand charges incurred from the wireless charger. It monitors the shuttle, wireless charger, renewable energy generation, and other loads and regulates charging behavior for demand charge mitigation. Within the control algorithm, an energy prediction is made to estimate the mobility needs of the vehicle and maintain uninterrupted service during operation while still minimizing peak demand. The proposed controller is designed and optimized using a Simulink model for the entire system. It is then implemented and tested in real time at the NREL campus using online cloud services. Two vehicle-use cases - charge-sustaining and charge-depletion operation - are tested under different campus power profiles and drive cycles to assess the controller's performance. The proposed controller showed a robust performance under different driving scenarios, with high correlation between simulation and experimental data. The results show that proper demand response can be achieved, with an average of 94% reduction of charging loads during peak demand events.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9298953
Pages (from-to)59-68
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1967-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-75727


  • Demand charge
  • Electric vehicle (EV)
  • On-demand
  • Smart charging
  • Wireless charging
  • Wireless Power Transfer (WPT)


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