Real-Time Inertia Estimation Tool Implementation Based on Probing Signals

Xinlan Jia, Zhihao Jiang, He Yin, Yi Zhao, Yilu Liu, Jin Tan, Anderson Hoke, Jiangkai Peng, Przemyslaw Koralewicz, Emanuel Mendiola, Ezequiel Hernandez, Juan Bellido, Kelsey Horowitz, Aaron Madtson, Brad Rockwell, Cameron Kruse

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


As renewable energy penetration increases and the traditional generators retire in power grids, system inertia decreases and exhibits significant daily fluctuations. Furthermore, fast frequency responses (FFRs) provided by the inverter-based resources (IBRs) begin to playa very critical role and bring new challenges to real-time system inertia monitoring due to the difficulties of quantifying its artificial inertia contribution. Thus, necessitating an accurate real-time inertia estimation tool will not only benefit the secure power grid operations, but also provide insights on assessing the artificial inertia contribution from the IBRs. This paper presents a probing-based real-time inertia estimation tool that has been validated through a power-hardware-in-the-Ioop (PHIL) test system using identical hardware battery energy storage system (BESS) and control in an actual power grid. Preliminary results indicate high estimation accuracy of the developed tool and pave the way for the field test and deployment.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2024
Event2023 14th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC) - Sousse, Tunisia
Duration: 16 Dec 202318 Dec 2023


Conference2023 14th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC)
CitySousse, Tunisia

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5000-89049


  • inverter-based resources
  • power-hardware-in-the-loop
  • probing signal
  • real-time inertia estimation


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