Reducing Surface Recombination Velocity of Methylammonium-Free Mixed-Cation Mixed-Halide Perovskites via Surface Passivation

Sarthak Jariwala, Sven Burke, Sean Dunfield, R. Shallcross, Margherita Taddei, Jian Wang, Giles Eperon, Neal Armstrong, Joseph Berry, David Ginger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus Citations


We control surface recombination in the mixed-cation, mixed-halide perovskite, FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, by passivating nonradiative defects with the polymerizable Lewis base (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS). We demonstrate average minority carrier lifetimes >4 μs, nearly single exponential monomolecular photoluminescence decays, and high external photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (>20%, corresponding to ~97% of the maximum theoretical quasi-Fermi-level splitting) at low excitation fluence. We confirm both the composition and valence band edge position of the FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 perovskite using multi-institutional, cross-validated, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. We extend the APTMS surface passivation to higher bandgap double-cation (FA and Cs) compositions (1.7, 1.75, and 1.8 eV) as well as the widely used triple-cation (FA, MA, and Cs) composition. Finally, we demonstrate that the average surface recombination velocity decreases from ~1000 to ~10 cm/s post APTMS passivation for FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3. Our results demonstrate that surface-mediated recombination is the primary nonradiative loss pathway in many methylammonium (MA)-free mixed-cation mixed-halide films with a range of different bandgaps, which is a problem observed for a wide range of perovskite active layers and reactive electrical contacts. Our study also provides insights to develop passivating molecules that help reduce surface recombination in MA-free mixed-cation mixed-halide films and indicates that surface passivation and contact engineering will enable near-theoretical device efficiencies with these materials.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5035-5044
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number13
StatePublished - 13 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-80631


  • charge carriers
  • efficiency
  • energy gap
  • films
  • perovskite
  • photoelectrons
  • photoluminescence


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