Regenerative Fuel Cell System: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-16-635

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Grid energy storage is required to maintain reliable electricity delivery from energy producers to their customers. As electrical loads on the grid change throughout the day, stored energy supplies electricity during increased power demand periods. Further, as more renewable and alternative energy sources are added, energy storage will maximize the usefulness of these technologies. Currently, the United States has over 24.6 GW of grid storage, about 2% of the total electrical production capacity. About 95% of energy storage comes from pumped hydro. However, pumped hydro energy storage is dependent on existing geographic features, making it difficult to integrate with widespread renewable energy sources. As energy demands continue to expand, and more renewable energy (i.e. wind and solar) is added to the grid, new energy storage technologies will be needed that are not dependent on geographic features. Battery technologies can provide energy storage for some applications, but are not economically well-suited for long duration charge/discharges, such as load-leveling of renewable energy. Consequently, development of new energy storage devices will augment the existing grid and reduce the capital investment in construction upgrades. As ever-increasing mandates for renewable energy are implemented, lower-cost energy storage solutions for renewable energy will be necessary to keep electricity costs low for consumers.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2020

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5900-76132


  • battery leveling device
  • delivery load
  • grid energy storage
  • regenerative fuel cell system


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