Reproducing the 'Framing' by a Sequential Stress Test

David Miller, Michael Kempe, Michael Owen-Bellini, Peter Hacke, Tadanori Tanahashi, Keiichiro Sakurai, Tsuyoshi Shioda, William Gambogi, Nancy Phillips, Kaushik Choudhury, Sergiu Spataru

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


The "Framing" (local discoloration along cell edges) was induced by a simple sequential accelerated stress test (consisting of hygrothermal- and UV-stressors) applied to the PV modules with high OTR (oxygen transmission rate) backsheet, irrespective of the inclusion of UV-absorber in poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) encapsulant. UV-fluorescence imaging of the PV modules suggests that the spatially-inhomogeneous degradation of EVA material under UV-irradiating conditions is correlated to this "Framing" indicating an underlying common mechanism. These findings would contribute to the development of test procedures to broadly mimic the actual failures observed in fielded PV.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages7
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Event46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2019 - Chicago, United States
Duration: 16 Jun 201921 Jun 2019


Conference46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5K00-76346


  • framing
  • metallization
  • photovoltaic (PV) module
  • snail trail
  • ultraviolet (UV)-induced degradation


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