Requirements for Enabling Extreme Fast Charging of High Energy Density Li-Ion Cells While Avoiding Lithium Plating

Andrew Colclasure, Kandler Smith, Alison Dunlop, Stephen Trask, Bryant Polzin, Andrew Jansen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

169 Scopus Citations


To improve electric vehicle market acceptance, the charge time of their batteries should be reduced to 10–15 minutes. However, achieving 4C to 6C charge rates with today’s batteries is only possible for cells with thin electrodes coming at the expense of low energy density and high battery manufacturing cost. An electrochemical model is validated versus high rate charge data for cells with several loadings. The model elucidates that the main limitations for high energy density cells are poor electrolyte transport resulting in salt depletion within the anode and Li plating at the graphite/separator interface. Next, the model is used to understand what future electrode and electrolyte properties can help enable 4C and 6C charging. Ideally, future electrolytes would be identified with 2X conductivity, 3–4X diffusivity, and transference number of 0.5–0.6. Alternatively charging at elevated temperatures enhances electrolyte transport by 1.5X conductivity and 2–3X diffusivity with a negligible effect on transference number. Another effective strategy to enable 4C and 6C charging is reducing electrode tortuosity. Conversely, increasing electrode porosity and negative/positive ratio are ineffective strategies to improve fast charge capability.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)A1412-A1424
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Electrochemical Society

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-73365


  • batteries
  • electrolyte transport
  • extreme fast charging
  • Li-ion batteries
  • lithium batteries


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