Research in Hydrogen Passivation of Defects and Impurities in Silicon: Final Report, 2 May 2000-2 July 2003

Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


This subcontract report describes hydrogenating Si samples by different methods such as low-energy implantation, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, and thermal diffusion. The samples were provided through NREL. The experimental work, carried out at Penn State, involved the study of hydrogen interaction with defects, trapping, migration, and formation of complexes. The principal vehiclefor the latter study was ion implantation, and the intent to understand mechanisms of defect passivation and activation by hydrogen. NREL implemented a study of hydrogen passivation of impurities and defects in silicon solar cells. The work included theoretical and experimental components performed at different universities. The theoretical studies consisted of the calculation of the structureand parameters related to hydrogen diffusion and interactions of hydrogen with transition-metal impurities in silicon. Experimental studies involved measurements of hydrogen and hydrogen-impurity complexes, and diffusion properties of various species of hydrogen in Si. The experimental work at Penn State included introduction of hydrogen in a variety of PV Si by ECR plasma, low-energy ionimplantation, and thermal diffusion. The specific tasks were the evaluation of hydrogen interaction with defects engineered by ion implantation; defect passivation, activation, and migration in hydrogenated Si under thermal anneal; and electrical activity of hydrogen-impurity complexes. Electrical characterization entailed I-V and C-V measurements, spreading resistance, and deep-level transientspectroscopy (DLTS).
Original languageAmerican English
PublisherNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2004

Bibliographical note

Work performed by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/SR-520-37181


  • crystalline
  • deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS)
  • electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)
  • hydrogen
  • ion implantation
  • module
  • plasma
  • PV
  • solar cells
  • thermal diffusion
  • thin films


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