Residual Stress Limits Gridline Bridging in Cracked Solar Cells

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Cracks in solar cells can be generated in various ways, but this does not mean immediate power loss. Previous studies showed that gridlines bridge cracked silicon cells, and the bridging behavior decreases during the contact and separation of gridlines within bare cells. In this study, we investigate bridging behavior in laminated monocrystalline cells. We characterize the behavior with Weibull analysis of critical crack opening distance (COD), at which the gridline is completely separated. The Weibull analysis of the laminated cell shows a good agreement with bare cells at the first cycle. However, we observe different behavior during cyclic bending. Bare cells show gradual decay of critical COD, while laminated cells show instant decay and plateau. We hypothesize that the difference is due to residual stress, squeezing gridlines, and causing plastic deformation. This is justified by the correlation between critical COD and gridline morphology. In the presentation, we shall present a Weibull analysis of the cyclic bending of a laminated cell with a reduced residual stress effect.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages3
StatePublished - 2023
Event2023 IEEE 50th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) - San Juan, Puerto Rico
Duration: 11 Jun 202316 Jun 2023


Conference2023 IEEE 50th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
CitySan Juan, Puerto Rico

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5K00-88869


  • bending
  • lamination
  • loading
  • morphology
  • photovoltaic cells
  • photovoltaic systems
  • silicon


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