Review of Potential-Induced Degradation in Bifacial Photovoltaic Modules

Cecile Molto, Jaewon Oh, Farrukh Mahmood, Mengjie Li, Peter Hacke, Fang Li, Ryan Smith, Dylan Colvin, Manjunath Matam, Christopher DiRubio, Govindasamy Tamizhmani, Hubert Seigneur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus Citations


Bifacial modules are increasingly deployed in the field and are expected to represent half of the market share within 10 years. Their rear structure differs from monofacial modules to allow additional light absorption. However, it brings new reliability challenges to address. In particular, the risk of potential-induced degradation (PID) is increased as both module sides are impacted. Different PID processes have been identified in the literature: shunting type (PID-s), polarization type (PID-p), Na penetration type, and corrosion type (PID-c). Their occurrence depends on the photovoltaic system configuration as well as the module's materials. Apart from PID-s, PID processes are not well understood and extensive research is needed to elucidate the PID scenario and underlying mechanisms. Herein, current knowledge about PID processes and their impact on the main bifacial modules in the market are gathered with the aim to guide future research. Bifacial module technologies and leakage current paths leading to PID are described. Indoor and outdoor PID testing methods are detailed. For each bifacial module technology, the PID processes are investigated with their indicators, mechanism and recovery process. PID-impacting factors and limitation solutions are finally reported and a state of the art on PID modeling is presented.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2200943
Number of pages30
JournalEnergy Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-84909


  • bifacial modules
  • degradation
  • modeling
  • photovoltaic
  • PID
  • potential-induced degradation
  • silicon


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