Review of Transportation Hydrogen Infrastructure Performance and Reliability

Jennifer Kurtz, Samuel Sprik, Thomas Bradley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Scopus Citations


Hydrogen infrastructure for fueling vehicles has progressed in the last decade from stations with restricted access and limited operating hours to customer-friendly retail stations open to the public. There are now 121 retail hydrogen stations around the world. In California, the number of public retail hydrogen stations has increased from zero to more than 30 in less than two years, and the annual amount of hydrogen dispensed by retail stations has grown from 27,400 kg in 2015 to nearly 105,000 kg in 2016 and more than 440,000 kg in 2017—an increase of about four times year over year. For more than a decade, government, industry, and academia have studied many aspects of hydrogen infrastructure, from renewable hydrogen production to retail hydrogen station performance. This paper reviews the engineering and deployment of modern hydrogen infrastructure, including the costs, benefits, and operational considerations (including safety, reliability, availability), as well as challenges to the scale-up of hydrogen infrastructure. The results identify hydrogen station reliability as a key factor in the expense of operating hydrogen systems, placing it in the context of the larger reliability engineering field.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)12010-12023
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number23
StatePublished - 3 May 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-70385


  • Hydrogen
  • Operation
  • Prognostics
  • Reliability
  • Station


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