Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

Brian Hodge

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their currentoperating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly comparesand contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages93
StatePublished - 2013

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5500-57583


  • balancing authority areas
  • integration cost
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
  • NREL
  • renewables
  • solar
  • variable generation
  • wind


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