Reviewing Flexibility in Industrial Electrification: U.S. Green Ammonia and Steel Industries

Research output: NRELPresentation


The renewable energy transition in the power sector involves a paradigm shift for flexibility. Supply flexibility faces new constraints due to the increased share of variable renewable resources. Increased demand flexibility can allow less use of peaking power plants and delay need for additional capacity and transmission. Industrial customers are larger on average than residential and commercial consumers and have typically provided the largest share of demand response in the United States. We consider industrial demand, studying characteristics of flexible industrial loads. We examine the dynamics of change occurring around industrial load flexibility by focusing on two case studies: green ammonia and steel production via electric arc furnaces. Electric arc furnace steel production is an important component of current demand response programs, whereas green ammonia and green fuels offer new paradigms for flexibility. We analyze the structure and functions of the technological innovation systems of load flexibility in those two industries via interviews with twenty-two stakeholders. We conclude that the technological innovation systems are not well-functioning for flexibility in EAF based steelmaking, but are in the green ammonia space. Explicit connections between scope two greenhouse gas emissions reporting and flexibility are lacking, and industry stakeholders do not appear to make a connection between decarbonization and load flexibility.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages37
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-5700-89697


  • electrification
  • flexibility
  • green ammonia
  • industrial decarbonization
  • steel


Dive into the research topics of 'Reviewing Flexibility in Industrial Electrification: U.S. Green Ammonia and Steel Industries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this