Scalable Fabrication and Coating Methods for Perovskite Solar Cells and Solar Modules

Kai Zhu, Nam-Gyu Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

582 Scopus Citations


Since the report in 2012 of a solid-state perovskite solar cell (PSC) with a power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7% and a stability of 500 h, intensive efforts have been made to increase the certified PCE, reaching 25.2% in 2019. The PCE of PSCs now exceeds that of conventional thin-film solar-cell technologies, and the rate at which this increase has been achieved is unprecedented in the history of photovoltaics. Moreover, the development of moisture-stable and heat-stable materials has increased the stability of PSCs. Small-area devices (<1 cm2) are typically fabricated using a spin-coating method; however, this approach may not be suitable for the preparation of the large-area (>100 cm2) substrates required for commercialization. Thus, materials and methods need to be developed for coating large-area PSCs. In this Review, we discuss solution-based and vapour-phase coating methods for the fabrication of large-area perovskite films, examine the progress in performance and the parameters affecting the properties of large-area coatings, and provide an overview of the methodologies for achieving high-efficiency perovskite solar modules.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)333-350
Number of pages18
JournalNature Reviews Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer Nature Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-74688


  • coatings
  • efficiency
  • fabrication
  • perovskite solar cells
  • power conversion


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