Scalable Predictive Control and Optimization for Grid Integration of Large-Scale Distributed Energy Resources: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Integration of a large number of distributed energy resources (DERs) into the power grid needs a scalable power balancing method. We formulate the power balancing problem as a look-ahead optimization problem to be solved sequentially by a power distribution system aggregator based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework. Solving large-scale look-ahead control problem requires proper configuration of the control steps. In this paper, to solve large-scale control problems, we propose a variable time granularity where control time steps nearby the current control step have finer resolutions. The aggregator objective includes maximization of power production revenue and minimization of power purchasing expense, renewable power curtailment, and mileage costs for energy storage and electric vehicle (EV) charging stations while satisfying system capacity and operational constraints. The control problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) and solved using the XpressMP solver. We perform simulations considering a copper plate representation of a large distribution network consisting of 2507 devices (controllable DERs) including curtailable photovoltaics (PVs), energy storage batteries, EV charging stations, and buildings with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning units (HVACs). We show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in managing DERs interactively for maximum energy trading profit and local supply-demand power balancing. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed method outperformed other benchmark controllers regarding computation time without compromising operational performance.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2022
Event2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting - Denver, Colorado
Duration: 17 Jul 202221 Jul 2022


Conference2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
CityDenver, Colorado

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-2C00-85220 for paper as published in proceedings

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-2C00-81506


  • DER
  • distribution system
  • electricity market
  • grid integration
  • model predictive control
  • power balancing


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