Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion: Article No. 2019-01-0570

Gina Fioroni, Jon Luecke, Derek Vardon, Nabila Huq, Earl Christensen, Xiangchen Huo, Teresa Alleman, Robert McCormick, Michael Kass, Evgueni Polikarpov, Goutham Kukkadapu, Russell Whitesides, Lisa Fouts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus Citations


Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C. Blendstocks needed to be soluble in diesel fuel, have a toxicity no worse than conventional diesel, not be corrosive, and be compatible with fuel system elastomers. Additionally, cloud point or freezing point below 0°C was required. Screening based on blendstock properties produced a list of 12 that were available as fuels or reagent chemicals or could be synthesized by biofuels production researchers. This group included alkanes, alcohols, esters, and ethers. These candidates were further examined for their impact fuel properties upon blending with a conventional diesel fuel. Blend properties included cetane number, lubricity, conductivity, oxidation stability, and viscosity. Results indicate that all 12 candidates can meet the basic requirements for diesel fuel blending, although in some cases would require additive treatment to meet requirements for lubricity, conductivity, and oxidation stability.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1117-1138
Number of pages22
JournalSAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2019
EventSAE World Congress Experience, WCX 2019 - Detroit, United States
Duration: 9 Apr 201911 Apr 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-76371


  • biofuels
  • cetane
  • chemicals
  • combustion and combustion processes
  • conductivity
  • corrosion
  • diesel fuels
  • diesel/compression ignition engines
  • fuel systems


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