Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

Jeremy Neubauer, Eric Wood, Ahmad Pesaran

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Battery second use - putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure - has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL's Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service - which is often driven by climate - is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2015
EventSAE 2015 World Congress and Exhibition - Detroit, Michigan
Duration: 21 Apr 201523 Apr 2015


ConferenceSAE 2015 World Congress and Exhibition
CityDetroit, Michigan

Bibliographical note

Posted with permission

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-63524


  • battery
  • battery secondary use
  • blast
  • energy storage
  • PEV


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