Sequence Impedance Modeling of Grid-Forming Converters: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Grid-forming control of inverter-based resources (IBRs) has been identified as a critical technology for operating power systems with high levels of inverter-based resources. This paper presents sequence impedance modeling of grid-forming inverters to evaluate its small-signal stability properties. Droop based grid-forming control with full consideration of the multiloop structure is studied, and the impact of individual controller on the inverter impedance characteristics is discussed. The developed sequence impedance model is compared with that of the grid-following inverter. It is found from the developed sequence impedance models that grid-forming inverters are less prone to harmonic resonance problems during operation with weaker grids. The developed models are validated using PSCAD simulations.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2021
Event2021 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting -
Duration: 25 Jul 202129 Jul 2021


Conference2021 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-82307 for paper as published in proceedings

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-78234


  • grid-following converter
  • grid-forming converter
  • impedance modeling
  • stability


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