SMART Perovskite Growth: Enabling a Larger Range of Process Conditions

Chuanxiao Xiao, Fei Zhang, Xihan Chen, Mengjin Yang, Steven Harvey, Matthew Beard, Joseph Berry, Chun-Sheng Jiang, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Kai Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus Citations


Cost-effective, high-throughput industrial applications of metal-halide perovskites require a highly tolerant method (i.e., wide process window) that produces high-quality materials with a short annealing time. Here, we introduce a Seed Modulation for ARTificially controlled nucleation (SMART) process that enables rapid fabrication of high-quality perovskite films under a wide set of initial input parameters. We characterized the thin-film evolution from the perspective of crystallinity, surface potential, diffusivity, surface carrier dynamics, and interfacial recombination. We find that surface and subsurface defects primarily determine the performance of materials and devices. By modulating the seeds for perovskite nucleation, we were able to improve the overall crystallization. We achieved a >20% power conversion efficiency using only a 5 min annealing step, and we found that the annealing window is widened such that differing initial conditions achieve similar quality. Furthermore, we demonstrated reproducibility and performance improvement in larger-area perovskite cells by incorporating the SMART process.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)650-658
Number of pages9
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - 12 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-79180


  • crystallinity
  • diffusivity
  • interfacial recombination
  • perovskite
  • surface carrier dynamics
  • surface potential


Dive into the research topics of 'SMART Perovskite Growth: Enabling a Larger Range of Process Conditions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this