Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 57)

Martin Green, Ewan Dunlop, Jochen Hohl-Ebinger, Masahiro Yoshita, Nikos Kopidakis, Xiaojing Hao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

713 Scopus Citations


Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since June 2020 are reviewed. In this issue, charts showing efficiency improvements since 1993 are included as well as cell and module area definitions and an updated list of recognized test centres.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3-15
Number of pages13
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-78697


  • energy conversion efficiency
  • photovoltaic efficiency
  • solar cell efficiency


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