Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 60)

Martin Green, Ewan Dunlop, Jochen Hohl-Ebinger, Masahiro Yoshita, Nikos Kopidakis, Karsten Bothe, David Hinken, Michael Rauer, Xiaojing Hao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

412 Scopus Citations


Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since January 2022 are reviewed. An appendix describing temporary electrical contacting of large-area solar cells approaches and terminology is also included.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)687-701
Number of pages15
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-83270


  • energy conversion efficiency
  • photovoltaic efficiency
  • solar cell efficiency


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