Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 9)

Martin A. Green, Keith Emery, Klaus Bücher, David L. King, Sanekazu Igari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus Citations


Since January 1993, Progress in Photovoltaics has published six monthly listings of the highest confirmed efficiencies for a range of photovoltaic (PV) cell and module technologies. By establishing guidelines for the inclusion of results into these tables, this not only provides an authoritative summary of the current state of the art but also encourages researchers to seek independentconfirmation of results and to report results on a standardized basis. Briefly, the main criterion for inclusion of results into these tables is that they be measured at one of the designated test centres previously listed under standardized test conditions. A distinction is also made between three different cell area measurements: total area, aperture area and designated illumination area.'Active area' efficiency measurements are not included. There are also certain minimum values of area encouraged for the different cell types, although some discretion is exercised here (0.05 cm2 for a concentrator cell, 0.25 cm2 for a tendem cell, 1 cm2 for a 1-sun cell and 800 cm2 for a module).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-530-23329


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