Solar Photovoltaic Module Recycling: A Survey of U.S. Policies and Initiatives

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Industry stakeholders, regulators, and policymakers in the United States are starting to develop policies for PV module recycling. Well-designed policies could reduce negative environmental impacts and resource constraints while opening new market and employment opportunities. This paper summarizes drivers, barriers, and enablers related to PV module recycling, which might be addressed via policy. It then analyzes existing and proposed U.S. policies that may affect PV module recycling. Among the global and national voluntary industry stewardship standards related to EoL PV management, this paper discusses a Solar Energy Industries Association program encouraging PV recycling among its U.S. membership. The paper concludes with a synthesis of policy-related factors that may encourage effective EoL PV module management.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages78
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A20-74124


  • modules
  • photovoltaics
  • policies
  • PV recycling
  • solar PV
  • United States


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