Solar Plus: Optimization of Distributed Solar PV through Battery Storage and Dispatchable Load in Residential Buildings

Eric OShaughnessy, Dylan Cutler, Kristen Ardani, Robert Margolis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

139 Scopus Citations

Abstract

As utility electricity rates evolve, pairing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery storage has potential to ensure the value proposition of residential solar by mitigating economic uncertainty. In addition to batteries, load control technologies can reshape customer load profiles to optimize PV system use. The combination of PV, energy storage, and load control provides an integrated approach to PV deployment, which we call 'solar plus'. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) model is utilized to evaluate cost-optimal technology selection, sizing, and dispatch in residential buildings under a variety of rate structures and locations. The REopt model is extended to include a controllable or 'smart' domestic hot water heater model and smart air conditioner model. We find that the solar plus approach improves end user economics across a variety of rate structures - especially those that are challenging for PV - including lower grid export rates, non-coincident time-of-use structures, and demand charges.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)11-21
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Energy
Volume213
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A20-70778

Keywords

  • load control
  • optimization
  • residential buildings
  • solar
  • storage

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