Solar PV and BESS Plant-Level Voltage Control and Interactions: Experiments and Analysis

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In real world operation, low-frequency oscillations associated with plant-level voltage control of inverter-based resources (IBRs) have been a concern of grid operators. This research aims to demonstrate and analyze the effect of plant-level voltage control on system stability and potential interactions among IBRs. The experiment results of a 13.2-kV system interconnected with two IBRs - a 1-MW battery energy storage system (BESS) and a 430-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) plant - are presented. Both 0.5-Hz and 3-Hz oscillations become visible at certain conditions. The phenomenon is further explained by use of a feedback system consisting of the plant-level droop control and the effect of reactive power or var injection on voltage. The main components of the block diagram are obtained via frequency scan measurements. The analysis offers an understanding of the main contributors and other influencing factors of the 3-Hz and 0.5-Hz modes. It also reveals the role of the volt-var droop gain, the low-pass filter time constant, and the system impedance in stability.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1040-1049
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1986-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-82901


  • Interactions
  • inverter-based resources
  • oscillations
  • plant-level control


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