Solar/Photovoltaic DC Systems: Information for Electrical Workers and Firefighters

Peter McNutt, William Sekulic, Gary Dreifuerst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are common and continue to gain popularity. This article helps electrical workers and firefighters understand basic operating principles and hazards of PV dc arrays. The effects of solar radiation and temperature on power output are discussed including; PV-module testing standards; methods for calculating the number of modules in a PV string; some National Electrical Code (NEC) guidelines that are aimed toward improving array safety; dc-array commissioning, periodic maintenance, and testing; arc-flash-hazard potential ways firefighters can work safely around PV arrays; potential risks posed by moonlight and other light sources; some unique dc-system hazards. We also present statistics on PV dc-array electrical incidents and injuries.
Original languageAmerican English
Article number8998279
Pages (from-to)39-47
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1975-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5B00-76374


  • hazards
  • inverters
  • qualifications
  • temperature
  • testing


Dive into the research topics of 'Solar/Photovoltaic DC Systems: Information for Electrical Workers and Firefighters'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this