Solution Processing of Transparent Conductors: From Flask to Film

David Ginley, Robert Pasquarelli, Ryan O'Hayre

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

349 Scopus Citations


This critical review focuses on the solution deposition of transparent conductors with a particular focus on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin-films. TCOs play a critical role in many current and emerging opto-electronic devices due to their unique combination of electronic conductivity and transparency in the visible region of the spectrum. Atmospheric-pressure solution processing is an attractive alternative to conventional vacuum-based deposition methods due to its ease of fabrication, scalability, and potential to lower device manufacturing costs. An introduction into the applications of and material criteria for TCOs will be presented first, followed by a discussion of solution routes to these systems. Recent studies in the field will be reviewed according to their materials system. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for further enabling research will be discussed in terms of emerging oxide systems and non-oxide based transparent conductors (341 references).

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5406-5441
Number of pages36
JournalChemical Society Reviews
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2011

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5200-72027


  • optoelectronics
  • thin films
  • transparent conducting oxides
  • transparent conductors


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