Stabilizing the Heavily-Doped and Metallic Phase of MoS2 Monolayers with Surface Functionalization: Article No. 015033

Hanyu Zhang, Tamara Koledin, Wang Xiang, Ji Hao, Sanjini Nanayakkara, Nuwan Attanayake, Zhaodong Li, Michael Mirkin, Elisa Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one of the most studied two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides that is being investigated for various optoelectronic properties, such as catalysis, sensors, photovoltaics, and batteries. One such property that makes this material attractive is the ease in which 2D MoS2 can be converted between the semiconducting (2H) and metallic/semi-metallic (1T/1T') phases or heavily n-type doped 2H phase with ion intercalation, strain, or excess negative charge. Using n-butyl lithium (BuLi) immersion treatments, we achieve 2H MoS2 monolayers that are heavily n-type doped with shorter immersion times (10-120 mins) or conversion to the 1T/1T' phase with longer immersion times (6-24 h); however, these doped/converted monolayers are not stable and promptly revert back to the initial 2H phase upon exposure to air. To overcome this issue and maintain the modification of the monolayer MoS2 upon air exposure, we use BuLi treatments plus surface functionalization p-(CH3CH2)2NPh-MoS2 (Et2N-MoS2) - to maintain heavily n-type doped 2H phase or the 1T/1T' phase, which is preserved for over two weeks when on indium tin oxide or sapphire substrates. We also determine that the low sheet resistance and metallic-like properties correlate with the BuLi immersion times. These modified MoS2 materials are characterized with confocal Raman/photoluminescence, absorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, scanning electrochemical microscopy, and four-point probe sheet resistance measurements to quantify the differences in the monolayer optoelectronic properties. We will demonstrate chemical methodologies to control the modified monolayer MoS2 that likely extend to other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, which will greatly expand the uses for these nanomaterials.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages13
Journal2D Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-80010


  • 2D TMDC
  • solar-photochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Stabilizing the Heavily-Doped and Metallic Phase of MoS2 Monolayers with Surface Functionalization: Article No. 015033'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this