Stable p-i-n FAPbBr3 Devices with Improved Efficiency Using Sputtered ZnO as Electron Transport Layer

Marinus Van Hest, Anand Subbiah, Sumanshu Agarwal, Neha Mahuli, Pradeep Nair, Shaibal Sarkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus Citations


Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm-2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19 V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages7
JournalAdvanced Materials Interfaces
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2017

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-68057


  • FAPbBr3
  • inorganic electron transport layer
  • PCBM
  • sputtering
  • stability
  • ZnO


Dive into the research topics of 'Stable p-i-n FAPbBr3 Devices with Improved Efficiency Using Sputtered ZnO as Electron Transport Layer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this