Standards Guidance for Electric Two- and Three-Wheelers and Charging Infrastructure in Pakistan

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) and electric three-wheelers (E3Ws) have reached upfront cost price parity as compared to their conventional counterparts in many markets (IEA 2022). Therefore, Pakistan has embraced E2Ws and E3Ws in their National Electric Vehicle Policy (Government of Pakistan 2019b). Specifically, this policy targets 50% of new two- and three-wheeler sales to be electric by 2030. In the short term, this policy targets five times as many E2Ws and E3Ws as cars, vans, and pickups. In order to meet these goals in a safe, reliable, and efficient manner, Pakistan needs to develop and implement standards related to E2W and E3W vehicles and charging infrastructure, including battery swap stations. Without standards, E2Ws and E3Ws can be dangerous, unreliable, incompatible with charging stations, or diminish the grid’s electricity quality (Goel and Singh 2019; Sasidharan 2020). Fortunately, there are several global and local efforts to establish standards that Pakistan can learn from or adopt. This document explains the purpose and process of standards development and introduces the international standards development organizations involved and relevant classification and testing systems. It then introduces and lists many standards related to the vehicles, batteries, and charging equipment so that Pakistan can adopt or reference these standards when developing its own.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages41
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5400-87955


  • battery
  • durability
  • e-bike
  • electric vehicle charging station
  • electric vehicles
  • motorcycle
  • quality
  • rickshaw
  • standards
  • swap stations


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