Statistical Treatise on Critical Biodiesel (B100) Quality Properties in the United States from 2004-2022

Robert McCormick, Teresa Alleman, Richard Nelson

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


The quality of neat biodiesel (B100) is critical for ensuring biodiesel blends used in diesel-powered vehicles do not adversely impact engine performance. In the United States, B100 is required to meet ASTM International's purity and fuel property requirements in D6751, "Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels."Here we review the development of this standard for the different grades of B100. The BQ-9000 program, which currently covers over 90% of U.S. and Canadian production volumes, is also described. Engine and original equipment manufacturers have expressed a desire for credible, third-party data on values of various ASTM B100 properties in the commercial market to inform their efforts to address future emissions and durability requirements. To address this need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory published data from analysis and testing of monthly samples from BQ-9000 producers from calendar years 2017-2022, resulting in 300-500 data points (i.e., individual fuel samples) per year. These data and a statistical evaluation of properties including the average, mean, standard deviation, and 95th or 5th percentile are presented. The results show very consistent and high-quality B100 produced in this time frame. Additionally, we review the results of earlier quality surveys conducted in the United States between 2004 and 2011, revealing how quality has changed over time in response to ASTM standard revisions, as well as the significant overall improvement in quality for modern biodiesel production.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages19
StatePublished - 28 Aug 2023
EventSAE 16th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, ICE 2023 - Capri, Italy
Duration: 10 Sep 202314 Sep 2023


ConferenceSAE 16th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, ICE 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-4A00-86327

Other Report Number

  • SAE Technical Paper No. 2023-24-0097


  • ASTM standard
  • biodiesel
  • quality statistics


Dive into the research topics of 'Statistical Treatise on Critical Biodiesel (B100) Quality Properties in the United States from 2004-2022'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this