Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2021 Data)

Jenny Sumner, Eric O'Shaughnessy, Sushmita Jena, Jesse Carey

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Voluntary green power, for the purposes of this report, refers to renewable energy procurement by retail electricity customers above state renewable energy mandates. In this report, we present data and key trends for voluntary green power markets, except for a small portion of voluntary purchasing where no data are available. In 2021, about 8 million retail electricity customers procured about 244 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of voluntary green power (Figure ES-1), representing about 27% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, about 39% of non-hydro renewable energy sales, and about 6% of all U.S. retail electricity sales. Most of the remainder of U.S. renewable energy sales reflects renewable energy procured by load-serving entities to comply with state renewable energy mandates, also known as compliance-based procurement.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages40
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-7A40-86162


  • green power sales
  • procurement
  • voluntary market


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