Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half ofall U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs,compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from theFederal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages66
StatePublished - 2011

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A20-52925


  • compliance
  • green power
  • market trends
  • REC
  • renewable energy (RE)
  • renewable energy certificates
  • renewable portfolio standard
  • RPS
  • sales
  • utility green pricing programs
  • voluntary markets


Dive into the research topics of 'Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this