Storage Futures Study: Storage Technology Modeling Input Data Report

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The Storage Futures Study (SFS) is a multiyear research project to explore the role and impact of energy storage in the evolving electricity sector of the United States. The SFS is designed to examine the potential impact of energy storage technology advancement on the deployment of utility-scale storage and the adoption of distributed storage, and the implications for future power system infrastructure investment and operations. This specific report synthesizes current and projected cost performance assumptions along with location availability for storage technologies through 2050 that will be used in scenario analysis for the SFS at both the bulk power and distribution system scales. For comparison and context, this report also presents a synthesis of current cost and performance characteristics of energy storage technologies for storage durations ranging from minutes to months and including mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical storage technologies for the electricity sector. This information is intended to cover a broad range of storage technologies that are currently receiving significant attention from the investment community as well as in the media. In the report, we emphasize that energy storage technologies must be described in terms of both their power (kilowatts [kW]) capacity and energy (kilowatt-hours [kWh]) capacity to assess their costs and potential use cases.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages84
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5700-78694


  • batteries
  • cost modeling
  • dGen
  • energy storage
  • ReEDS


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