Strategies for Continuous Balancing in Future Power Systems with High Wind and Solar Shares: Article No. 5249

Henrik Nordstrom, Lennart Soder, Damian Flynn, Julia Matevosyan, Juha Kiviluoma, Hannele Holttinen, Til Vrana, Adriaan van der Welle, German Morales-Espana, Danny Pudjianto, Goran Strbac, Jan Dobschinski, Ana Estanqueiro, Hugo Algarvio, Sergio Martinez, Emilio Gomez Lazaro, Bri-Mathias Hodge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus Citations


The use of wind power has grown strongly in recent years and is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades. Solar power is also expected to increase significantly. In a power system, a continuous balance is maintained between total production and demand. This balancing is currently mainly managed with conventional power plants, but with larger amounts of wind and solar power, other sources will also be needed. Interesting possibilities include continuous control of wind and solar power, battery storage, electric vehicles, hydrogen production, and other demand resources with flexibility potential. The aim of this article is to describe and compare the different challenges and future possibilities in six systems concerning how to keep a continuous balance in the future with significantly larger amounts of variable renewable power production. A realistic understanding of how these systems plan to handle continuous balancing is central to effectively develop a carbon-dioxide-free electricity system of the future. The systems included in the overview are the Nordic synchronous area, the island of Ireland, the Iberian Peninsula, Texas (ERCOT), the central European system, and Great Britain.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages43
Issue number14
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A40-87264


  • balancing services
  • continuous balancing
  • frequency control
  • renewable power system
  • solar power
  • wind power


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