Stress Engineering for Mitigating Thermal Cycling Fatigue in Perovskite Photovoltaics

Min Chen, Yifan Dong, Yi Zhang, Xiaopeng Zheng, Gabriel McAndrews, Zhengdong Dai, Qi Jiang, Shuai You, Tuo Liu, Steven Harvey, Kai Zhu, Vincent Oliveto, Alec Jackson, Robert Witteck, Lance Wheeler, Nitin Padture, Paul Dyson, Michael McGehee, Mohammad Nazeeruddin, Matthew BeardJoseph Luther

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


Mechanical residual stresses within multilayer thin-film device stacks become problematic during thermal changes because of differing thermal expansion and contraction of the various layers. Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices are a prime example where this is a concern during temperature fluctuations that occur over long deployment lifetimes. Here, we show control of the residual stress within halide perovskite thin-film device stacks by the use of an alkyl-ammonium additive. This additive approach reduces the residual stress and strain to near-zero at room temperature and prevents cracking and delamination during intense and rapid thermal cycling. We demonstrate this concept in both n-i-p (regular) and p-i-n (inverted) unencapsulated perovskite solar cells and minimodules with both types of solar cells retaining over 80% of their initial power conversion efficiency (PCE) after 2500 thermal cycles in the temperature range of -40 to 85 degrees C. The mechanism by which stress engineering mitigates thermal cycling fatigue in these perovskite PVs is discussed.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2582-2589
Number of pages8
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5F00-89810


  • alkyl-ammonium additives
  • halide perovskite thin-film devices
  • residual stresses


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