Study of Inverter Control Strategies on the Stability of Low-Inertia Microgrid Systems

Jing Wang, Govind Saraswat

Research output: NRELPresentation


This paper investigates the stability of low-inertia microgrid systems with two control strategies that have different percentages of grid-forming (GFM) inverters. The first control strategy has approximately 50% GFM inverters, and all the battery inverters are working in GFM control mode. Originally, the second control strategy has approximately 10% GFM inverters, with only two battery inverters working in GFM control mode and the rest working in grid-following (GFL) PQ control mode based on current control, which cannot stabilize the microgrid system. Then, the second control strategy is modified to change the GFM inverters from droop control to isochronous control and the GFL battery inverters from traditional current control to voltage control for power control. Both control strategies can maintain system stability; however, the first control strategy can better handle contingency events. The study indicates that 1) a microgrid system with a higher percentage of GFM inverters has better stability; and 2) a microgrid with a lower percentage of GFM inverters can have poor stability, but improved control strategies in inverters can improve system stability. This study improves the understanding of how different percentages of GFM inverters and inverter control strategies affect the system stability of low-inertia microgrids.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NamePresented at the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) Conference, 17-20 October 2022, Brussels, Belgium

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-5D00-84213


  • droop control
  • grid-following control
  • grid-forming control
  • voltage and frequency stability.


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