Surface Conversion of Single-Crystal Bi2Se3 to β-In2Se3

William McMahon, Celeste Melamed, Hanyu Zhang, Jeffrey Blackburn, Pat Dippo, Adele Tamboli, Eric Toberer, Andrew Norman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work, we demonstrate that the surface layers of single-crystal layered-2D Bi2Se3 can be converted to layered-2D rhombohedral β-In2Se3 by annealing under a trimethylindium (TMIn) flux. Samples were prepared in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) chamber, then transferred under vacuum to a surface analysis chamber for analysis with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy. Additional ex situ characterization included x-ray diffraction, transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping, and Raman spectroscopy. The resulting single-crystal β-In2Se3 adopts the rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R-3m) and orientation of the underlying Bi2Se3, and the excess Bi atoms generated by this process create an underlying region of Bi-rich BixSey. Due to the difference in bandgap between Bi2Se3 and In2Se3, this conversion reaction presents a pathway to lateral heterojunctions if only selected regions are converted by masking the surface to spatially define the TMIn exposure. The conversion may also have implications for heteroepitaxy, because the in-plane lattice constants of Bi2Se3 and In2Se3 (0001) surfaces match those of InP and GaAs (1 1 1), respectively, and the natural cleavage planes of a layered-2D crystal facilitate substrate removal and reuse.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 126306
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-79969


  • crystal structure
  • III-V
  • inorganic compound
  • interfaces
  • organometallic vapor phase epitaxy
  • photovoltaic
  • PV
  • topotaxy


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