Susceptibility to Polarization Type Potential Induced Degradation in Commercial Bifacial p-PERC PV Modules

Farrukh Mahmood, Fang Li, Peter Hacke, Cecile Molto, Dylan Colvin, Hubert Seigneur, GovindaSamy TamizhMani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Potential induced degradation (PID) is a reliability issue affecting photovoltaic (PV) modules, mainly when PV strings operate under high voltages in hot/humid conditions. Polarization-type PID (PID-p) has been known to decrease module performance quickly. PID-p can be reduced or recovered under the light in some cases, but this effect, as expected, would be less pronounced on the rear side of bifacial PV modules receiving lower irradiance. As bifacial PV modules are projected to dominate the PV market within the next 10 years, it is crucial to understand the PID-p issue in bifacial modules better. In this study, we performed indoor PID testing to induce PID-p on 14 commercial bifacial p-PERC modules with three different module constructions from three manufacturers. Four rounds (+ve and −ve polarities for front and rear sides) of PID testing are done at 25°C, 54% relative humidity (RH) for 168 h using the aluminum foil method. Each module side (front cell side and back cell side) is tested individually under both negative and positive voltage bias. The results show that the highest degradation of 32% in maximum power (Pmax) at standard test conditions (1000 W/m2) and 51% at low irradiance (200 W/m2) has been observed in some cases. Recovery under sunlight is also done, and outcomes show a near-complete recovery in Pmax. This study presents an extensive experimental methodology and a detailed analysis to systematically and simultaneously/sequentially evaluate multiple construction types of bifacial modules to the PID-p susceptibility and recovery.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1078-1090
Number of pages13
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-86498


  • bifacial modules
  • indoor testing crystalline silicon
  • light recovery
  • p-PERC
  • photovoltaic reliability
  • PID
  • polarization
  • potential induced degradation


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