Sustainable Lead Management in Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

So Park, Ji-Sang Park, Byeong Kim, Hyemin Lee, Aron Walsh, Kai Zhu, Dong Kim, Hyun Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus Citations


Despite the rapid development of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) toward commercialization, the toxic lead (Pb) ions in PSCs pose a potential threat to the environment, health and safety. Managing Pb via recycling represents a promising approach to mitigating its toxicity. However, managing Pb from commonly used organic solvents has been challenging due to the lack of suitable Pb adsorbents. Here, we report a new adsorbent for both separation and recovery of Pb from PSC pollutants. The synthesized iron-incorporated hydroxyapatite possesses a strongly negatively charged surface that improves electrostatic interaction through surface-charge delocalization, thus leading to enhanced Pb adsorption. We demonstrate the feasibility of a complete Pb management process, including the purification of Pb-containing non-aqueous solvents below 15 parts per 109, a level compliant with the standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency, as well as recycling of 99.97% of Pb ions by forming lead iodide.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1044-1051
Number of pages8
JournalNature Sustainability
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-77630


  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • health risks
  • hydroxyapatite
  • iodine compounds
  • layered semiconductors
  • perovskite
  • perovskite solar cells
  • recycling


Dive into the research topics of 'Sustainable Lead Management in Halide Perovskite Solar Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this