Synchronization in Electric Power Networks with Inherent Heterogeneity Up to 100% Inverter-Based Renewable Generation

Amirhossein Sajadi, Richard Kenyon, Bri-Mathias Hodge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus Citations


The synchronized operation of power generators is the foundation of electric power network stability and a key to the prevention of undesired power outages and blackouts. Here, we derive the conditions that guarantee synchronization in power networks with inherent generator heterogeneity when subjected to small perturbations, and perform a parametric sensitivity analysis to understand synchronization with varied types of generators. As inverter-based resources, which are the primary interfacing technology for many renewable sources of energy, have supplanted synchronous generators in ever growing numbers, the center of attention on associated integration challenges have resided primarily on the role of declining system inertia. Our results instead highlight the critical role of generator damping in achieving a stable state of synchronization. Additionally, we report the feasibility of operating interconnected electric grids with up to 100% power contribution from inverter-based renewable generation technologies. Our study has important implications as it sets the basis for the development of advanced control architectures and grid optimization methods that ensure synchronization and further pave the path towards the decarbonization of the electric power sector.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 2490
Number of pages12
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A40-82489


  • inverter-based resources
  • renewable energy
  • synchronization
  • synchronous generators


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