Tailored Interfaces of Unencapsulated Perovskite Solar Cells for >1000 Hour Operational Stability

Joseph Luther, Jeffrey Christians, Steven Harvey, Bertrand Tremolet de Villers, Joseph Berry, Jonathan Tinkham, Tracy Schloemer, Alan Sellinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

713 Scopus Citations


Long-term device stability is the most pressing issue that impedes perovskite solar cell commercialization, given the achieved 22.7% efficiency. The perovskite absorber material itself has been heavily scrutinized for being prone to degradation by water, oxygen and ultraviolet light. To date, most reports characterize device stability in the absence of these extrinsic factors. Here we show that, even under the combined stresses of light (including ultraviolet light), oxygen and moisture, perovskite solar cells can retain 94% of peak efficiency despite 1,000 hours of continuous unencapsulated operation in ambient air conditions (relative humidity of 10-20%). Each interface and contact layer throughout the device stack plays an important role in the overall stability which, when appropriately modified, yields devices in which both the initial rapid decay (often termed burn-in) and the gradual slower decay are suppressed. This extensively modified device architecture and the understanding developed will lead towards durable long-term device performance.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)68-74
Number of pages7
JournalNature Energy
StatePublished - 2018

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-68531


  • efficiency
  • perovskite solar cells
  • stability


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