Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-Effective Vehicle Electrification

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

42 Scopus Citations


Electrifying transportation can reduce or eliminate dependence on foreign fuels, emission of green house gases, and emission of pollutants. One challenge is finding a pathway for vehicles that gains wide market acceptance to achieve a meaningful benefit. This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective including opportunity charging, replacing the battery over the vehicle life, improving battery life, reducing battery cost, and providing electric power directly to the vehicle during a portion of its travel. Many combinations of PHEV electric range and battery power are included. For each case, the model accounts for battery cycle life and the national distribution of driving distances to size the battery optimally. Using the current estimates of battery life and cost, only the dynamically plugged-in pathway was cost-effective to the consumer. Significant improvements in battery life and battery cost also made PHEVs more cost-effective than today's hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (CVs).

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 2010
EventSAE 2010 World Congress and Exhibition - Detroit, MI, United States
Duration: 13 Apr 201013 Apr 2010


ConferenceSAE 2010 World Congress and Exhibition
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityDetroit, MI

Bibliographical note

For preprint version see NREL/CP-540-47454

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-540-48291

Other Report Number

  • SAE Paper No. 2010-01-0824


  • battery
  • charging
  • PHEV
  • plug in hybrid electric vehicle
  • vehicle


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