Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules: Final Technical Report, April 1998 - October 2001

    Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


    This report describes the significant progress made in four areas of this subcontract: process and equipment development; efficiency improvement; characterization and analysis; and environmental, health, and safety. As part of the process and equipment development effort, vapor-transport deposition (VTD) was implemented first on a 60-cm-web pilot-production system, then on a 120-cm-webhigh-throughput coater. Deposition of CdS and CdTe films at a throughput of 3 m2/min was demonstrated, and more than 56,000 plates (each 0.72 m2) were coated -- 16 times the total number coated prior to the start of the contract. Progress was also made in the conversion efficiency and yield of both standard and next-generation modules, with data from more than 3000 sequentially deposited moduleshaving an average total-area conversion efficiency of 7% and next-generation modules produced with efficiency as high as 9.3% (10.15% aperture-area efficiency as measured by NREL). Successful implementation of in-situ CdS thickness measurements was important to progress in thickness uniformity and control. Net CdTe material utilization of 82% was demonstrated. The ability to raise theutilization further was shown with the demonstration of inherent CdS and CdTe material utilizations of over 90%. Post-CdTe-deposition process development, which included process space exploration and problem diagnosis, was an important part of advances in efficiency and yield. As part of the efficiency-improvement task, research was done on cells and modules with reduced CdS thickness toincrease photocurrent.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages47
    StatePublished - 2002

    Bibliographical note

    Work performed by First Solar Technology Center, Perrysburg, Ohio

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/SR-520-32041


    • back contacts
    • coater durability
    • electron-beam induced current (EBIC)
    • finite difference
    • interfacial layer
    • light emitting diodes
    • open-circuit voltages
    • photoluminescence
    • PV
    • recrystallization
    • semiconductor film thickness
    • vapor transport deposition (VTD)


    Dive into the research topics of 'Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules: Final Technical Report, April 1998 - October 2001'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this