Temperature Rise on Liner Surfaces of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Tanks during Fueling Process

Taichi Kuroki, Cory Kreutzer, Daniel Leighton, Joshua Martin, Jeffrey Mohr, Michael Peters, Matthew Ruple, Shaun Onorato, Steven Mathison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Herein, the temperature of the inner tank walls, or plastic liners, of composite pressure tanks in fuel cell electric vehicles during fueling using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models is evaluated. The liner materials are limited to 85.0 °C to prevent thermal stress causing material failure that would result in a hydrogen leak. Therefore, the temperature of hydrogen gas must be limited to below 85.0 °C during the fueling process as dictated by the current fueling protocol. However, there are limited experimental or simulation data confirming that the temperature changes do not exceed the threshold. Herein, the liner temperatures with CFD tank models for two sizes of type IV tanks representative of the upper and lower system bounds that are close to the SAE J2601 fueling protocol (36.0 and 244.0 L) are evaluated. First, each model's reliability is validated with experimental data and then analyzed, and the data are used to evaluate the maximum hydrogen and liner temperatures under real-world fueling conditions. The evaluation shows that the maximum liner surface temperature of each tank model is at least 7 °C lower than that of the hydrogen. Additionally, there is at least 12 °C difference found between the upper limit and actual liner temperatures.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2300239
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy Technology
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Energy Technology published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-85029


  • computational fluid dynamics simulation
  • hydrogen fueling process
  • hydrogen temperature
  • plastic liner temperature
  • thermal and flow fields


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