293 Scopus Citations


Over the past decade, the global cumulative installed photovoltaic (PV) capacity has grown exponentially, reaching 591 GW in 2019. Rapid progress was driven in large part by improvements in solar cell and module efficiencies, reduction in manufacturing costs and the realization of levelized costs of electricity that are now generally less than other energy sources and approaching similar costs with storage included. Given this success, it is a particularly fitting time to assess the state of the photovoltaics field and the technology milestones that must be achieved to maximize future impact and forward momentum. This roadmap outlines the critical areas of development in all of the major PV conversion technologies, advances needed to enable terawatt-scale PV installation, and cross-cutting topics on reliability, characterization, and applications. Each perspective provides a status update, summarizes the limiting immediate and long-term technical challenges and highlights breakthroughs that are needed to address them. In total, this roadmap is intended to guide researchers, funding agencies and industry in identifying the areas of development that will have the most impact on PV technology in the upcoming years.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number493001
Number of pages47
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number49
StatePublished - 2 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-76570


  • energy storage
  • energy yield
  • pervoskites
  • photovoltaics
  • silicon
  • solar cell
  • tandem cell


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